On his return he was crowned shah of Persia in March 1796. , London, 1798, II, pp. See also G. R. G. Hambly, “Aqa Mohammad Khan and the Establishment of the Qajar Dynasty,” Royal Central Asian Journal 50, 1963, pp. A year later, after a raid on Astarābād, Āḡā Moḥammad was pursued by the governor and fled to Ašraf (present-day Behšahr), where he was intercepted and sent as a captive to Karīm Khan in Tehran. , London, 1818, pp. politicians of united Pakistan, 1969-1971, ( Reżā-qolī Khan Hedāyat, Rawżat al-ṣafā-ye Nāṣerī VIII-IX, Tehran, 1369/1950. For the next ten years, while the Afsharid state of Khorasan fell victim to the rapacity of rival chieftains and incursions by Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī of Afghanistan, Moḥammad-Ḥasan battled against Āzād Khan Afḡān and Karīm Khan Zand for control of the western portion of Nāder’s empire. He was defeated in 1172/1759 by the Zand army and killed by a renegade; Astarābād fell and was placed under a Develū governor; and Moḥammad-Ḥasan’s two eldest sons, Āḡā Moḥammad and Ḥosayn-qolī, took refuge on the steppe. Book Agha Mohammad was quite free in Shiraz and was even permitted to venture out of the city for hunting. Yahya Khan diplomaat uit Pakistan (1917-1980) Yahya Khan former Pakistani president (1917-1980) Yahya Khan … Subsequently the Qavānlū and the Ašāqabāš branch of the Qajars to which they belonged were dominated by the rival Develū clan of the Yūḵārībāš branch. For almost a decade, Āḡā Moḥammad was involved in a ceaseless campaign of warfare, diplomacy, and treachery to unify the Qajar factions, to expand and consolidate his hold on Iran’s northern provinces, to stave off threats from his brothers Mortażā-qolī and Reżā-qolī, and to defeat successive Zand pretenders. While he was busy uniting and strengthening the Qajars, the Zands were torn by fratricide and a bitter struggle for succession. From Ardabīl he divided his army of some 60,000 into three columns; the first was to advance through the Moḡān steppe and collect arrears of tribute, the second to take Erivan, and the third, which he personally commanded, to reduce the strategic fortress of Shusha held by Ebrāhīm Ḵalīl Khan of Qarabāḡ. From there he hurried to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and was welcomed by his tribesmen. 66 likes. In 1779, when Karim Khan was at the point of death, Agha Mohammad found excuses to remain out of the city. Agha Mohammad immediately galloped toward the north and reached Esfahan, a distance of 316 miles, in Artist This chief has the reputation of being attentive to business . attacks on East Pakistan to quash an ongoing revolt led by liberation fighters against Pakistan's President General Yahya However, it is chiefly owing to his eighteen years of tireless conquest and consolidation that Iran (in its modern extent) was finally integrated under a single monarch and thus enabled to weather the storms of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He immediately marched on Mašhad, ostensibly on pilgrimage, but in fact to reclaim Khorasan as part of the Safavid patrimony. In 1206/1791 he was faced with renewed attacks on Gīlān by Mortażā-qolī Khan and an advance on Isfahan by Loṭf-ʿAlī Khan, the courageous and popular young Zand prince who had again rallied support in Fārs. Āḡā Moḥammad’s ability to enforce all these demands was not put to the test, for that autumn the Empress Catherine II, to avenge the sack of Tiflis, dispatched an army under the twenty-four-year-old Valerian Zubov which, by the end of the season, had subjugated all the Caspian littoral up to the Moḡān steppe and appeared poised for a march on Tehran.

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