For example, in the following molecule, it is easy to spot the ethyl group but a naming the second substituents needs following certain rules. 19 0 obj <> endobj JEEMAIN.GURU-February 10, 2020. Therefore, the final name of our compound is going to be 2,3-dimethylpentane. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. In today’s post, we will talk about the IUPAC rules of nomenclature for naming alkanes and alkyl halides. The parent chain is determined based on the longest carbon chain that is present in the molecule. So, remember, we distinguish two units; the “main part” of the molecule, called the parent chain, and the additional group(s) known as substituents: The substituent can be a carbon fragment, and these are called alkyl groups, or any other functional group such as a halide, an OH, a nitro group etc. � ��,0�ӌ��i 2P���FހWk�amTDp\����W��9��o�� Alkanes are often referred to as saturated hydrocarbons. 0000006856 00000 n The complications and need for rules arise when the molecules get branched out. endstream endobj 20 0 obj <. Organic Chemistry Study Materials, Practice Problems, Summary Sheet Guides, Multiple-Choice Quizzes. Likewise, the butyl groups can also be primary, secondary and tertiary. The longest possible chain here consists of nine carbons, so the parent chain is nonane. 0000041469 00000 n Alkyl groups are formed by removing one hydrogen from the corresponding alkane and are named based on this alkane by simply changing the ending from –ane to -yl. The next exercise will teach you drawing the structure based on the IUPAC name. ��y½��a��݁ͅMX ���Mq�D��9>>�ݹ���8n7�U���A��w��_�@$8%6�k��9��GB���W�yFzH[z��h�푟���3�`�h!9�%�g��w����8�3�+�KNW\H�̊׎��8���0��ЙR��wyt�����f��,6��.�C����_p]Yo��E�}.a�N @�6��r!\qn�֫���N�uWG��G!�8'�f��dY�7k� � �`����x�-%�q�-�����cAw�d ��G��f98}�����ńD�S�vC�8���^�q�ָB�n��$�V��*���0{�� ������D΃���=cT��/v�Iޮ��w���.�z3>J2��\l���b�h��׈y �>�s��iVbc�a��H"�ޖH� l�gGH7�3FAaa�,���l��ì��y|�Wp1i�W��R>QKň�S6��x>T��`�^d�=�I������ "�*tK��,�2���=@��u����C�9�A��@�����h1 'r(͊M �Q�ͨ�8믋��? For the four special monosubstituted benzenes, use the common name. 0000003124 00000 n 0000003886 00000 n Notice that numbers are separated by commas and because there are two methyl groups, we need to use the prefix “di” before the name of the alkyl groups. Now, suppose we need to name the following compound: Step 1. Hence, C 5 H 12 is called pentane, C 6 H 14 is called hexane, C 7 H 16 is called heptane and so forth. 0000004365 00000 n 0000038284 00000 n To do this, start numbering from the carbon directly connected to the actual parent chain of the molecule and list the alkyl groups alphabetically: Notice that at the end, the quasi parent chain gets the -yl suffix since it is still a substituent and the actual parent chain is placed at the end. 0000007809 00000 n In the following practice problems, we will go over naming alkanes using the IUPAC nomenclature rules which include finding the parent chain, numbering it to have the substituents in the correct positions and finally putting all of this together to name the compound. By. Step 3. However, starting from any end, allows to make a five-carbon chain. Title: Microsoft Word - Practice Problems on Alkane Nomenclature.docx Author: Jose Laboy Created Date: 2/7/2014 7:15:13 PM x��]I�Gv���+��0���=�>q8�)��M�$�Mt7�n� 4Dr~�����eV .��%��~o���nX�n��¿7�W��_Luw���W��N�j\ �S�ѝ��(�n����m��������x���!�����wW���_�W��Y&W�cZ����Cw�1��.�s������rX �v�opL�1޽����f��+.F�i�����ǫ_���X L�ž_����M�`}Z���~iV�(�Y�{�e����������װ��e4&g�^ N�^t���΍tj?l �Y��t�����O��8������+S�z��� ���UY���5��ïu?��0X���Ϙ6fq���츸�A�x�w��� �����FF��^+�8�K[�150��uہU�ž���J1��bRcr+����������v�%S��r�e���-d������o_&hc�J.�yV�~ ����k�]�21�� ΫWCr� V�Mg�*n:v���XS�Zr�v�I;"�Q�8��"� B�V" �htj��8��S�Th��q�e-�����P޶�rt�w_h�ٱt�T�鏜ی����f��7��h���e@*r]j�|)a����cg 3�����_��`�@�5z�Z���.��瀗�W�qDKqܾ ��D�PG��+=��3�mn�%Y�J�8�=�謪�U{s2�`��?ކ�d��`��1���i]��g`\�b���������B4c�I�4���3������F|�j��{w����ŸꘊsH��m�ƕp�|�x9@2��5^n����.�Z���T����X}Θ���*�!�=�T�2�r�T�Q�\re쨂j� pJ� �����"���y��s�2= �RZ��?��)����sY 4�'�ݨ8������-5� F|�$� `Z{ܗ��b�>�I��D(������,a{+5 0000003809 00000 n |>� ?g�V�q��� ��E}�,��������7�J.�:�k �����Q]Y`z^��je�Q+wKG=�h�J"۔q:9��>=��e���xJw��*�/'��M��n䏔��I�� �z�K� �AN�ʊd�TŗK���T�-Y �j$@)Y0�coD����ਥ���y[����3�gY&k~�,��~�A���%F���x��! Facebook. Therefore, the parent chain is pentane and the substituent is a methyl group. Let’s also consider the other option of having two methyl groups on pentane: Notice that, in this case, regardless where we start the numbering, the first methyl gets locant 2, and the second one gets 4. • The longest continuous carbon chain in the compound is the parent chain. 0000002251 00000 n For example, what if we add a methyl (CH3) group to pentane? Sometimes, we run out of the common names for the substituents such as sec-butyl, tert-butyl, iso-butyl but we still need to name a substituent that is larger than usual. If the ring has more carbons than the chain, then it is the parent chain: Notice that the carbons in the ring belong to the ring only. Therefore, it is 2,4-dimethylpentane. 0000003774 00000 n

handout will cover how to correctly name alkanes using IUPAC methods. 0 Put the parent chain and substituents together by placing the substituents in alphabetical order!

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