The Muiscas, who spoke Chibcha, lived mainly in the present departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá, and were well known for their political organizing.
 Similar in some respects to the Native American reservation system of the United States, the resguardo has lasted with some changes even to the present and has been an enduring link between the government and the remaining highland tribes. These peoples account for 58.1% of Colombia’s Indigenous population. Although they comprise only 3.5% of the population, they represent about 1.5 million people distributed in about 87 different tribes. Politics between 1986 and 1990 tried to rehabilitate the marginal zones and their integration to achieve development; specific institutions were set up to work with indigenous communities, seeing them as farmer communities which habits and forms of production had to be modernized.  For example, it allowed for creation of a special commission to design a law recognizing the black communities occupying unsettled lands in the riverine areas of the Pacific Coast. These ethnic groups are made up of the ancestors of indigenous peoples who inhabited Colombia before Spanish colonization.
By Benjamin Elisha Sawe on July 18 2019 in Society. While the Amazonian region of Colombia is sparsely populated, it is home to over 70 different indigenous ethnic groups.. One of the most significant aspects of the Wayuu is the art of weaving colorful Wayuu Mochila bags.
 In the agricultural chiefdoms of the highlands, the Spaniards successfully imposed institutions designed to ensure their control of the Amerindians and thereby the use of their labor.
, By 1991 the country's 587 resguardos contained 800,271 people, including 60,503 families. The zipa used to cover his body in gold and, from his Muisca raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake.  The colonists had organized political and religious administration by the end of the sixteenth century, and they had begun attempts to religiously convert the Amerindians to Christianity, specifically Roman Catholicism. According to the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Colombia’s indigenous population stands at around 1.45 million, or about 3.5% of the total population. These native groups are credited with the pottery and gold work artifacts displayed in various museums in the country. American Indians, or indigenous peoples of Colombia, are the ethnic groups who have been in Colombia prior to the Europeans in the early 16th century. This conception has survived since the colonization of the continent until now: generally, the indigenous and also the black diversity is still seen as a negative element which has to be reduced or completely wiped out to guarantee the development and the modernization of Latin American societies. However, this law has yet to be sanctioned so in practice the territories are unregulated.. Anthropologist Tom Dillehay dates the earliest hunter-gatherer cultures on the continent at almost 10,000 BC, during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene periods. The Romani people in Colombia chiefly speak the Romany language and engage in craft, music and dances, elements which characterize the Romani culture. ETIs are to be defined by the government in conformance with the Organic Law on Land Management. , Approximately 50% of the indigenous peoples of Colombia live in the La Guajira, Cauca, and Nariño Departments. Colombia's indigenous culture evolved from three main groups—the Quimbaya, who inhabited the western slopes of the Cordillera Central; the Chibchas; and the Kalina (Caribs). , Indigenous peoples hold title to substantial portions of Colombia, primarily in the form of Indigenous Reserves (Spanish: resguardos), which encompass one-third of the country's land.
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