The town was often the target of enemies across the English Channel, especially during the Hundred Years' War. Although the West Country was the worst affected, southern England, the Midlands, and south Wales also suffered. The coldest winter in a Glasgow composite record from 1868. There is currently no evidence of Homo neanderthalensis having been found in caves at Cattedown, Oreston, Stonehouse or Mount Batten (Turnchapel). Snow reported as lying on the streets in London on the 11th. The three 'high-summer' months of June, July & August each had nearly double average (1961-90) rainfall amounts and (up to 1999) was the second wettest summer in the EWP record. Tech-Savvy Volunteers! Using the EWP series (not necessarily representative of the whole of Britain), the anomaly was between 60 and 70% of average for that season. Construction of the Royal Citadel began in 1665, after the Restoration; it was armed with cannon facing both out to sea and into the town, rumoured to be a reminder to residents not to oppose the Crown. Some places in SE England had no rain for 60 consecutive days, from mid-March to mid-May with the longest absolute drought of all being at Mile End (London) from 4th March to 15th May. Living Conditions in New York City . May 22: Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was attacked and beaten with a cane in the U.S. Senate chamber by Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina. if you know your way around computers, and would like to help, please let us know! [13], In the late fifteenth century Plymouth Castle, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; it included four round towers, one at each corner, as featured on the city coat of arms. A snowstorm occurred between the 1st & 2nd, 1867 causing great hindrance to railway traffic. Sea walls damaged / destroyed at Southport, Lancashire. The first Eddystone Lighthouse was erected by Henry Winstanley in 1696 in an attempt to protect the increasing volume of shipping passing the treacherous reefs on the approach to Rame Head. One particular tragedy involved the destruction of almost the entire fishing fleet from the port of Eyemouth in Berwickshire. [22] The town was besieged almost continuously from December 1642 to January 1646; the main factor in its successful resistance was the navy's adherence to Parliament which allowed the regular arrival of supply ships and, when under serious Royalist attacks, enabled parties of seamen to be rushed ashore to reinforce the defences.[22]. Notably wet year by the EWP series - in the 'top-10' using that measure. (Easton, in CHMW/Lamb). A notably dry year by the EWP series - as of 2012, in the 'top-5' driest by that measure. But toiling on a merchant ship was hard and dangerous, and many seamen were malnourished and disillusioned. However, the extent to which the Brythonic Cornish language was spoken east of the Tamar remains a point of conjecture. Later evidence suggests that the Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia retained a degree of autonomy from Rome, and the later Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex due to the significance of its tin mining activities. The main concern was for housing, and many prefabs were built by 1946, followed by over a thousand permanent council houses built each year from 1951–1957 as part of the 'Homes fit for heroes' programme. Part of a notably dry period in the mid/late 1850s: see below. On the 18th May 1891 snow fell over a wide area in the Midlands and East Anglia, to a depth of 15cm. In Aberystwyth the winds blew down various buildings: at Limerick (western Ireland) it was reported that a 'violent gale from the northwest brought heavy showers of rain & sleet, with window glass broken, slates removed from houses and chimneys blown down. On the 21st October, she was near the Clyde, but encountered the storm as above, and had to run for shelter into Ardrossan harbour. The very cold weather with snow was also reported by John Oram from Co. Mayo, Connaught in NW Ireland - I intrepret his comments to imply that the event there was most unusual. [39], After the war, the Admiralty required more space in the city and by 1950, after much discussion, 50 acres (200,000 m2) were allocated. Remarkable rainfall totals over these 5 months: total for this period (EWP)=717mm (or ~170% of the long-term average). a cold backward spring up 'till May which month was remarkably dry . It continued as both a fishing and continental tin trading port through the late Iron Age into the Early Medieval period, until the more prosperous Saxon settlement of Sutton, later renamed Plymouth, surpassed it. The chill was not confined to England, as there are reports of a 'cold, dry & windy' year across Scotland. [ It is not clear where this observation was made, but I suspect that this was referring to the Pool of London - a very important port for transfer of goods.] From contemporaneous farming records in Connaught (NW Ireland), it appears that the period August 26th to September 17th was very wet: so much so, that by the end of the period, some bridges were washed away. A notably wet year by the EWP series - in the 'top-10' by that measure with a total of 1146 mm/~125% LTA. On the 21st January, a heavy snowfall / blizzard: 14 deaths occurred as two trains collided near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, because one of the drivers was blinded by the blizzard causing the train to over run the signals. The third Eddystone Lighthouse, Smeaton's Tower, was assembled from granite at Millbay from 1756 to 1759 and marked a major leap forward in the development of lighthouse design – the upper portion remains the most iconic landmark of the modern city. This article is about the history of the city in England. Specifically in NW Ireland (from a farming diary in Connaught), there are frequent notes of 'wet days' and 'alarming cold', coupled to occasional days of high winds/damage: specific occasions of 'gales' are thought worthy of record on the 4th & 7th June and the 19th July; it was noted that the harvest was 'terrible'. Snow on the cables and arms had forced all the signals into the 'clear' position. There were reports of shipwrecks (in an age when sail was still widely in use) from places such as Southend-on-Sea, Bridlington, Ayr, Ilfracombe, Bideford, Cardigan, Staithes (N. Yorkshire coast) and Stranraer. In particular, the workings of the nearly completed Severn railway tunnel were flooded. Dover and Deal in Kent and Brighton, East Sussex, became completely cut off. In the Armagh Observatory record, with a total of over 500 mm for the four months June to September inclusive, this represents well over twice-average rainfall at this station. In 1589, the English Armada's assembly had been completed, and the fleet of 146 ships lay at mooring in Plymouth. which romantically mythologises the historical exploits of the 'Men of Devon' of this era. On the 13th, after a quiet start to the month, the weather became markedly cyclonic, with a persistent run of W or SW winds until well into the second-half of the month. At Stonehouse was built the Royal Marine Barracks,1782, and the Royal Naval Hospital built 1762;. . "; and another … the "Chasun", an iron paddle steamer had left Glasgow on the 8th bound for Shanghai, but by the time the vessel had reached Waterford (in Ireland) she had to return to the Clyde due to a fault with her engines. In this year, a station on Jersey (details unknown at this time) recorded 2340 h of bright sunshine. Some bridges were swept away. Archaeological evidence from the surrounding region of west Devon and east Cornwall[9] suggests that the area was culturally distinct from the more easterly English heartlands well into the Middle Ages, the agricultural and architectural patterns[10] having much more in common with Atlantic South Wales, Ireland and Brittany. The nearly fatal beating was prompted by a speech the anti-slavery Sumner gave in which he insulted a pro-slavery Senator. There were frequent severe frosts, with snow & hail reported throughout the month accompanied by strong gales (occasional further severe gales/see below, especially around the 10th/11th). Plymouth notably lent its name to the settlement of Plymouth, Massachusetts following the departure of the Pilgrim Fathers aboard the Mayflower in 1620, as well as many other settlements in North America. In the nearby parish of Stoke Damerel new dockyards at the mouth of the Tamar were commissioned by William of Orange in 1691 to support the Royal Navy in the western approaches. However, this turned out to be a false start to the 'winter' season, as the subsequent 'standard' winter (DJF) became, until the 21st century, the warmest winter (by CET) in the series which began in 1659. (see also 1788, 1887 & 1921). Exceptionally heavy daily rainfalls included 204mm at Seathwaite (Cumbria / Lake District) on the 12th November in 1897. Please phone our office at 815-923-2267 The summer of 1868 was very hot & dry, with some of the highest temperatures ever recorded for the second half of July occurring in this year. November to January .. notably and persistently cold by CET series. A cold month with CET=0.7degC. April to August ... notably and persistently cold by CET series. snowdrifts were 'huge' around some houses in the London - would be accounted a most remarkable sight nowadays! The town was besieged almost continuously from December 1642 to January 1646; the main factor in its successful resistance was the navy's adherence to Parliament … In Scotland, more than 30 cm of snow fell, while at Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire the heavy snowfall did much damage to trees and shrubs. From a farming diary kept in Co. Mayo, Connaught (NW Ireland), January was so wet that it was impossible to plough the land on occasion; February was also noted as being a 'very wet' month (but not cold): the very wet weather apparently lasted until the last week of March. Unusually unsettled (see individual entries above), and thought to be comparable with worst years of the Little Ice Age; coldest year in London (?Kew Observatory) since detailed records first kept in 1841. In the 1950s a new Royal Navy Engineering College was built at Manadon, and HMS Raleigh, the current basic training facility of the Royal Navy, was opened west of Torpoint. 9-13th March 1891, easterly "blizzard"**. Wettest (calendar) year for England and Wales in the EWP series.

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